The 33-year-old former Marseille, West Bromwich Albion and Dijon player has joined the Yorkshire club on a free transfer following his departure from Finnish top-flight side FC Honka in October 2013.
Doncaster manager Paul Dickov said:
"We are probably missing that little bit of experience at the minute and Abdoulaye will definitely bring that."
The Ivory Coast international could make his Doncaster debut in Saturday's Championship trip to Blackburn.
Wanderers fans do not have happy memories of the Ivorian, who moved to the club in 2006.
He was memorably embroiled in in controversy during a Bolton defeat against Manchester United at Old Trafford. Then-Bolton boss Gary Megson blamed him for two goals that Bolton had conceded in the first half of the game (both scored by Cristiano Ronaldo), and Méïté refused to come out for the second half.
He claimed he was unfit to carry on, but the Bolton medical staff confirmed that there was no injury.
Megson subsequently forced Méïté to train with the reserves, and the player never played for Bolton again.